Deva Victrix

By appearing on Sky TV and then on YouTube, this group of Roman performers in Chester appeared on my radar. They've been going since 2003. As they engagingly put it:

(Last into battle first into the pub)

Established in 2003, this is a team of committed enthusiasts was brought together by Roman Tours Ltd to provide Chester with its very own Roman display team.

Our primary function was to parade through the streets of Chester during the summer as a tourist attraction. Reaching the Chester Cross, we present a visual and verbal portrayal of life at Chester nearly 2,000 years ago.

3-dvd edition of The Fall of the Roman Empire reviewed

Pop Matters has this review.

The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Miriam Collection (3 Disc Limited Collector’s Edition)

It was the final nail in his financial coffin, the epic that would eventually close his by now infamous Spanish studios. After the troubled production surrounding his last epic, 55 Days at Peking, many believed producer Samuel Bronstein would exercise some manner of restraint. But in true visionary form, he actually tore down his original Rome sets when actor Charleton Heston (who had appeared in El Cid) expressed interest in the Chinese spectacle. When the famous star eventually rejected a role in Fall, Bronstein hired Stephen Boyd, and then rebuilt the entire Forum and most of the ancient city across 55 sprawling acres. Budgeted at $20 million (in 1964 dollars), Fall flopped, and even with its high profile cast, it couldn’t save the producer’s professional reputation.

That’s the great thing about DVD. It can help reestablish an unfairly maligned career. It can also argue for filmmaking facets that contributed to an already predetermined downfall. Both elements are present in the The Weinstein Company’s gorgeous restoration of The Fall of the Roman Empire. Presented over three discs and supplemented with a wealth of explanatory material, we get a chance to see Bronstein’s vision the way he intended it (sans the 70mm Ultra Panavision Cinerama, that is). We also get an opportunity to witness the hubris that believed audiences would enjoy a scattered, three hour dramatization of the decline of the famed civilization. With the usual international casting conceit, and lots of expansive sets, director Anthony Mann was given a simple mandate – make it big. He frequently went further, making it boring as well.

While fighting Germanic forces north of his empire, Marcus Aurelius is poisoned by conspirators. Unable to name his beloved friend General Gaius Livius as his intended successor, the role of emperor falls on the ruler’s ineffectual son, Commodus. After marrying off his sister – and Livius’ lover – Lucilla to an Armenia king, he begins his reign. Believing that the road to peace is best paved with war and taxes, he causes rebellion amongst many of the outlying regions. In the meantime, Livius brokers a truce with the North, and uses his connection to Aurelius adviser Timonides to the get the Roman Senate to endorse it. Of course, Commodus disapproves. As the leader’s hubris grows, his control on the empire wanes. After an unsuccessful assassination attempt, Lucilla is sentenced to death. She is joined by Livius, who has been set up by his own men. A final gladiatorial battle for the fate of Rome awaits our two competing conquerors.

Over the years, some have argued that Gladiator glommed on and stole most of the meaning from this overstuffed production, yet what’s most clear about The Fall of the Roman Empire is that it is a movie at odds with itself. On the one had, director Anthony Mann and his fine group of actors – Boyd, Alec Guinness, James Mason, Christopher Plummer, Sophia Loren – do a wonderful job of bringing out the personal interplay and individual strife that would lead to the collapse of the mighty civilization from the inside out. We believe in the dynamic between the cast, and see how the fate of men (and one woman) could lead to the undermining and the misery of half the world. It’s not a new story – absolute power corrupts absolutely, in a nutshell – but Mann does indeed make it come alive.

On the opposite end is Bronstein’s desire for more: more sets; more battle sequences; more extras. What we witness onscreen does indeed look impressive. While many marveled at Ridley Scott’s CGI version of the famed Italian city, Rome and its fantastic Forum look so much more real here. Of course, the tactile effect of a real practical backdrop does help. But there are other elements that are just as successful – the Temple of Jupiter (with the head of Commodus), the winter camp of Marcus Aurelius, the sweeping battlefields. Yet they seem to exist outside of the more intimate material at hand. The Fall of the Roman Empire can frequently feel like a character study played out amongst the very planets themselves. Scope and scale frequently countermand narrative and nuance.

Of course, that was the point. Bronstein never thought that a non-spectacle would fill seats. The cinema was still battling TV for the all-important entertainment soul of the American public, and without something sensational to sell, the small screen’s convenience and novelty continued to win out. In many ways, such massive bombast was indeed revolutionary. It was mimicked as recently as the late ‘80s/early’90s, when the VCR and home video threatened to make movie-going obsolete. The studios responded with special effects laden efforts. To paraphrase the position – the viewer never starves when there’s eye candy around.

It was the same four decades ago. Of course, the sweets have soured a little since then. Much of Fall feels forced, pageantry played to the hilt simply because it can be. Plummer is wonderful as the egomaniacal brat, and Mason literally makes the movie. Of course, there are performers like Guinness who appear to be putting in the miles without delivering much of the necessary effort, and Loren was still in iconic beauty mode. She was much better back when she was battling Heston (off screen) during El Cid. Yet the optical wonder provided here, the sheer opulence of Mann’s moviemaking and Bronstein’s approach give The Fall of the Roman Empire just enough to keep us going. It may be a tough road to hoe sometime, but the overall effect is impressive.

Equally extraordinary is this new DVD edition. Named after the Weinstein’s mother Miriam, the sheer wealth of added content here should make even the most amateur film historian weep with delight. The movie itself contains a commentary by Bronstein’s son Bill and his biographer Mel Martin. While a tad too self-congratulatory (after all, they aren’t really going to criticize the man), it’s still a remarkable discussion. Disc Two trots out the Making-Ofs and the Behind the Scenes featurettes. One of the best highlights the “fact vs. fiction” way in which history is manipulated by Hollywood to fit its dramatic needs. Finally, a third DVD delivers a series of short films, commissioned by the Encyclopedia Brittanica, which offers a classroom like take on Roman History (this material is only available as part of the limited edition package).

Frankly, anyone coming to this film hoping for historical accuracy should really seek some cinematic guidance. The Fall of the Roman Empire is really meant to be nothing more than a sumptuous banquet of motion picture excesses served with a side dish of the slightest narrative accuracy. That Samuel Bronstein saw this as the ultimate form of entertainment speaks as much for his approach as a producer as his fate as a filmmaker. It’s not surprising that he ended up going bankruptcy when Fall tanked. Too much of what he was – and always would be – was wrapped up in this extremist ideal. And just like all outsized imaginations, a crash was inevitable. The Fall of the Roman Empire may not be the most notorious motion picture morass in the history of the medium, but for Samuel Bronstein, it was the ultimate expression of what he was – for better and for worse.

Another site for sharing Classics teaching resources

Steve Jenkin has emailed with a report on his The Classics Library site, which I think I mentioned when it opened. It is of the essence of the internet that 'a hundred flowers bloom', and the frequent attempts that people make to set up the definitive portal to such and such a topic are doomed to failure.

So I welcome this site, and am glad that it has joined the other lesson-plan, ideas, and teaching-aid-sharing places like the OCR Classics community, the TES teachers' forum, and of course ARLT's own For Teachers section.


The Classics Library is a month old, and I hope you’ve been able to make some use of it! It is fairly easy to find via Google (‘the classics library’ search – currently on the second page of search results), and it has links on the sites of JACT, ARLT and FoC. An article will be appearing in September’s JCT, and the current FoC newsletter. Also, a Common Entrance page has been added, with support from Bob Bass, who is helping alert the Prep School community.


In terms of statistics, in the last month, the site has had almost 2000 unique visits from people, who have downloaded more than 700 files collectively.

So, I’m feeling reassured that there probably is a demand for the site, even accounting for some ‘early buzz’ for something new.


Understandably, many more people are downloading than uploading, and I expect this to always be the way. After all, it takes only one useful resource to be available for any number of people to make use of it. Also, at this time of the year, where we’re all returning from Easter break, and busy with revision for exam classes, we’re all naturally directing our minds at our own students and lessons rather than other people’s.


Still, if the number of downloads suggests the need out there for resources, then please take some time to upload a few files you’ve created and found at all useful. Most of the files on the site, so far, are my own: I’d appreciate seeing other people’s names – I do feel somewhat ‘on show’!!

Files Most Recent

Bob Bass and Eilleen Emmett have uploaded resources for Common Entrance, Cicero’s Pro Roscio Amerino, and GCSE’s Sempronia and Clodia, which are finding new homes out there. Andy Berriman’s hard work on a historical background handout for Cicero’s Pro Roscio Amerino is very popular. I’ve also uploaded texts of Cicero’s in Catilinam 1, Ovid’s Metamorphoses 8, Juvenal’s Satires 3 and 10, Homer Iliad 16, and a translation of Druides (looking ahead to next year…). Those are just files added in the last couple of weeks.

Thanks to everyone who’s accessed the site, and to those who’ve taken something from it.

Looking forward, on everyone’s behalf, to adding new resources from yourselves – without this, the site’s life is very limited!


Steve Jenkin