Mary Beard's Top Ten Classical misconceptions

“Facts” people think they know about the Romans here.

Normal service will be resumed ….

When I returned from holiday something seemed to be wrong with the blogging server. Today I find that it's back to normal. Apologies for the hiatus, and, for a while, multiple copies of two posts.

While writing about blogs, we bid a regretful farewell to Adrian Murdoch, who wrote an interesting blog while writing a book on the later Roman empire. He called it Bread and Circuses. He is now moving on, but the blog is still up, and worth looking at.

Roman re-enactment at Ham Hill in Somerset

From the Yeovil Express

The Romans are coming – again!

THE mighty Roman Army will be marching on Ham Hill once again next month.

The Roman occupation of what we now know as the country park near
Stoke-sub-Hamdon is part of the long and interesting history of Ham
Hill and this will be celebrated at a fayre on Saturday, September 8.

The Romans arrived and managed to wrestle power from the occupying Iron Age tribe, the Drurotriges.

The Roman army established a wooden military fort on the site,
probably a good base and stop off point for those soldiers marching
down further into the south west along the Roman road, the Fosse way,
which is now the A303.

Later in the occupation they built a 19-roomed villa of Hamstone,
with mosaic floors and hypercaust heating. Ham Hill must have certainly
been a different landscape to the busy recreational site we know today.

The great spectacle of a marching Roman army and the thrill of
gladiator fighting will be just part of the entertainment at the fayre
on September 8.

Those with a stronger stomach can visit the military hospital, while
others can see the preparation of food and better understand Roman
pastimes. It will be a fun and enlightening day, all for free.

The Ham Hill fayre is open between 11am and 5pm, is free to visit
and will include a whole host of re-enactment groups and exhibitors.

Cllr Sylvia seal, South Somerset District Council's portfolio holder
for leisure, culture and well-being, said: “The fayre will be a
fantastic day for residents and visitors alike to enjoy and immerse
themselves in the history that surrounds this wonderful country park.”

The fayre is being organised by the district council and the Friends
of Ham Hill Community Group and funded by the heritage lottery fund and
with assistance from the Duchy of Cornwall.

Dramatic photos from space of the terrible Greek fires

European Space Agency photo of the plume of smoke rising from the Peloponnese is here. (New York Times)

The ESA's own site with a different picture of the burnt areas is here

NASA has this pic:

BBC History Magazine and the Classics

The current BBC History Magazine, a holiday indulgence for me, has yielded a few items of Classical interest.

John Collis writes on the Celts, showing that they were suggested as Britain's original inhabitants by George Buchanan in the 16th century. Buchanan used language, and particularly place-names, as evidence.

In the centuries since, more work has been done on language, and two other types of evidence have been studied: archaeolical remains (including burial customs and art style) and DNA.

Of these three types of evidence, DNA shows most continuity in the population of Britain: “A high percentage of us are descended from the original colonists who came here in the period after the final glaciation about 10,000 years ago.”

Language shows two big change-points. The first is from the assumed aboriginal language to Indo-European “at some point”. The second is “the shift to Germanic languages”. Language change shows an invader becoming dominant, but does not necessarily mean that the bulk of the population changed.

Burial customs and art styles can change very quickly, and so should not be relied on to establish population change. As the author points out, Irish road signs in Irish and English show “ancient and modern languages co-exist.”
I am observing this every day as I travel around Ireland – and the road signs give no clue that large numbers of East Europeans and Chinese are now part of the Irish population.

Collis argues that it is misleading to identify the Celts of the Classical world with those who think of themselves as Celts today.

“No one…ever thought of calling the inhabitants of Ireland 'Celts' until Buchanan.”

This may all have a bearing on how we teach Roman Britain. Or perhaps not.

Letter from Ireland (2)

The aforesaid BBC magazine carries a review of The Day of the Barbarians by Alessandro Barbero, in which Tom Holland praises Barbero's 'lucid and comprehensive' writing but regrets the lack of depth. The Day is the Battle of Adrianople in AD 378 when the Goths wiped out an entire Roman army.

Most of us Classics teachers don't need to study this period deeply, so perhaps this book would be good for broadening our knowledge.

There is also a review by Peter Jones of The Tomb of Agamemnon by Cathy Gere. Peter concludes: “Fascinating stuff.”

The Romans in your town?

The view of Roman life purveyed in this piece from This is Hampshire may be excessively lurid, but at least the paper/website is using the interest aroused by 'Rome' on BBC2 to tell its readers about the Romans in their own neck of the woods. Have you got a similar story you could give to your local paper?

What was life like in Roman Southampton?

A BLOOD-SPATTERED Roman brandishes the severed head of the man who killed his wife and children, a woman bathes in the blood of a slaughtered bull and hundreds of soldiers meet a grisly end on the battlefields.

Stabbings, severed limbs and slit throats are a common occurrence as bloody battles and brutal violence – ranging from crucifixion to public rape – erupt in and around the city.

Yet this is a time of excess and pleasure as much as violence. Behind the blood-soaked walls of ancient Rome, an exhausting amount of enthusiastic bed hopping is taking place – and it's not confined to the beds.

Events in the public bathhouse – where dozens of men and women can indulge in a communal bath – are getting decidedly steamy.

Viewers are lapping it all up as the second series of BBC2 epic Rome gallops towards its bloodthirsty conclusion.

Made by the same people who brought us The Sopranos and Six Feet Under, Rome charts the birth of the Roman Empire through the eyes of ordinary citizens – and it is something of an eye opener!

It may be the most expensive BBC drama in history but the scenes of debauchery and brutality threaten to make it one of the most controversial.

Some critics dismiss the programme as a macho gore-fest or liken its racy shenanigans to Carry On. Others praise it as a jolly exciting romp (quite literally in some episodes) through a fascinating part of history.

Experts assure us the programme was meticulously researched and much of the goings on we see on screen are based on historical evidence telling us the Romans were a brutal lot.

But did the sex and violence spill over from the capital to the rest of the Empire?

“You have to remember the Romans came to Britain to exploit it,” says Karen Wardley, curator of archaeology at Southampton's Museum of Archaeology.

“One of the main exports was slaves. We look back now and see beautiful Roman villas and have an image of how things were, but in reality the Romans were brutal and nasty.”

Southampton could certainly be a lethal place during Roman times says the museum's archaeology manager, Andy Russel.

“We have plenty of records of armed gangs,” explains Mr Russel, an expert on Southampton's largest Roman settlement, Clausentum.

“There was no national police force so crime depended on having a strong right arm.”

Clausentum was built on a promontory on the east side of the River Itchen – now known as Bitterne Manor.

The site, which began life in AD 43 as a military base for the invading Romans, was an important port and later became a defensive fort.

Excavations have revealed traces of a bath-house, warehouses, roadways and tracks, and defences in the form of banks and walls.

While Hampshire was generally quite friendly towards the invading Romans, Mr Russel says things were not always so peaceful.

And, he reveals, the city may even have been the setting for a bloody battle to rival those played out on BBC2 every Wednesday and Sunday night.

“There may have been a battle of tooth and claw in Southampton,” he says. “There was a period when Britain declared itself independent from the rest of the Empire and a fort may have been built in Southampton in the AD 280s.

“The Roman Emperor wasn't very impressed with this and put together a fleet to reclaim Britain.

“We think they landed off the coast of the Isle of Wight and might have attacked the fort in Southampton before marching through to London.”

The Isle of Wight would have been used to conflict. Violent battles frequently erupted between the Romans and the tribes on the island, says Mr Russel. The result? Mass slaughter.

In the early days of the Roman invasion Clausentum was an important stopping-off point for the soldiers.

A huge warehouse was built here to store weapons and food for the troops.

Later the site began to grow into a civilian town and its location by the sea made it a perfect trading point.

“We know lead was being exported so there would have been lots of chunky dockers wandering around Southampton who were able to lift and move the heavy ingots around,” says Mr Russel.

And if the excesses of Rome weren't readily available in Hampshire, they were soon being shipped in via Southampton.

“It was very important to follow the Roman way of life. You had to have the right kind of house, the right clothes and the right food. Luxurious items were imported from Rome such as fancy pottery and olive oil, wine and fish sauce which was so important in Roman cuisine.

“Housewives in Bitterne would have armed themselves with a Roman recipe book written by a man called Appicius.

“It would have included dishes such as roast dormouse and lark's tongue pie. Some of these dishes and ways of life would be direct copies of the kind of excesses seen in Rome.”

12:00pm Sunday 8th July 2007

By Paula Thompson

Arbeia had a cavalry unit – new discovery

From the 24 Hour Museum. Thanks to Explorator for the link.

Two new names can be added to the roll of Romans
who were stationed at Arbeia Roman Fort, South Shields. Inscriptions
found at the site in the last two seasons of excavation were recently
deciphered by Dr Roger Tomlin, an expert on Roman inscriptions based at
Oxford University.

“Two inscriptions have been found during recent excavations
which reveal fascinating details about the Roman troops stationed at
South Shields,” explained Nick Hodgson, principal keeper at Tyne and
Wear Museums.

The first inscription was found on a pair of lead sealings
unearthed at Arbeia. The seals measured about 25mm in diameter and
would have been used to seal packages.

Read the rest